• ED 253- History of the Present Timeline

    The Privatization of Education:

    • 2/15/2022- House Bill 290 “the Backpack Bill”: This rather recent bill follows a hearing of Ohio lawyers who are discussing having a school voucher system open to all students. Before this, vouchers were only open to students who meet certain criteria like disability or family income. This bill would fund the student rather than a specific school and it would expand private school options for students. The reasoning behind this bill is that it would allow a student to go to the school that is the best help for them where they can get the best quality of education. This bill does not express the detrimental effects this bill would have on the funding to public schools.

    • 7/22/2020- School Choice Now Act: This act was introduced to the Senate in July 2020 in order to prevent the closure of private schools. This act allows the Department of Education to create a grant program, giving funds to families for private school tuition, home-schooling expenses, or charter schools. This act also gives families tax credits so that they would be eligible to participate in scholarships for private schools once again to help with tuition. This act is a part of neoliberalism and new ideas of “School Choice,” which contribute to the privatization of education. This act and ones like it are part of the problem that is school privatization and the taking away of government funds from private schools. This bill would also allow students from low quality public schools to use public tax money to go to a better quality private school.  

    • 11/2018- “Save Our Schools Arizona” (SOSAZ): After the School Choice Bill was passed, the threat of allowing universal vouchers was real, causing an education crisis because these vouchers were going to take away funds from public schools that were already chronically underfunded. In response, parents and teachers filed a citizens’ referendum to put SB1431 on the ballot and this started the Save Our Schools Arizona Campaign. This group with thousands of volunteers got petitions signed and worked through the Arizona Supreme Court to defeat universal vouchers. It proved to be the case that the supreme court was able to defeat universal vouchers, and that people naturally do not want their money going to private schools. 

    • 4/17/2017- Arizona “School of Choice” Bill: During President Trump’s time in office, he advocated for the school voucher system and public funding going to private schools. This led to the state of Arizona passing a pretty heavy school choice bill, allowing students to withdraw from public schools and to use their state funding to go to private schools or online school instead. This bill was signed by Governor Doug Ducey and this bill relates to making education a commodity and trying to sell it on the market, which in theory is not how it works. Allowing state funding to go to the student or private schools causes public schools, who are already chronically underfunded, to be sucked of their resources.  

    • 2015- Education Secretary DeVos Educational Reform Speech: In her speech, Secretary of Education, Betsy DeVos, shows her support on voucher system schooling. She explained that the public school system needs to be reformed by the government to act like a market. Devos’ view is that if this change isn’t made, education could be completely controlled by the government and students and their families would not be able to make their own decisions regarding school. She wants to develop education like other industries in that other industries are always being innovated and they are not controlled by the government. She wants a system of education based on privatization and competition between schools, but this in turn leads to the defunding and closing of public schools.  

    • 2011- Arizona LawMakers Put Limits on Who can Receive Vouchers: After courts declaring that school voucher programs were unconstitutional, they were basically removed from the education department for a time, but school voucher programs were still offered to students with special needs who weren’t getting what they needed at public schools. In this case, Arizona made an exception to the no voucher rule and allowed students with disabilities to use their state funds elsewhere to get an education that fits them best. The problem still is that public schools needed these public funds to improve their programs for students with disabilities so they don’t have to go to a different school. 

    • 2009- School Voucher System Unconstitutional: The Arizona Supreme Court found that the school voucher system was unconstitutional because it violated a clause in the constitution that taxpayer dollars cannot go to private or religious organizations. America is a country that believes in the separation of church and state, and a lot of private schools are religious. Therefore, taxes that are going to the government cannot go to help fund private schools that are associated with a religion because it would be violating that separation of church and state. However, this supreme court case was not much of a setback for people who wanted education to be privatized and advocates for the voucher system. 

    • 2001- “No Child Left Behind Act”: The “No Child Left Behind Act” was a renewal of the 1965 “Elementary and Secondary Education Act”, and it authorized federal education programs in states to ensure high quality education among students. This act made it so it was required to test elementary and secondary students in reading, math,etc. This act was seeking to provide all students in America with equal access to high quality education. This act also made it so the government could fund specific aspects of school like test prep and tutoring to both private and public schools. Lastly, this act also facilitated school choice because it made it so parents would have multiple schooling options to send their children to school whether that be private or public schools. 

    • 2/4/1999- “ACLU Memo on the Constitutional Implications of Voucher Proposals”: This memo explains that school vouchers are a threat to American public schools. It explains that if the school voucher system was passed, it would drain all the necessary money and resources from public schools. Millions of students rely on public schooling for their education, and if these vouchers were passed, public schools could close down. Thus, leaving no options for those students who need public schools. This memo also talks about how the voucher system would confuse the idea of separation of church and state because the government would ultimately be giving funds to religious, private schools. 

    • 1997- “Agostoni V. Felton”: This is a Supreme Court case challenging a previous court case (Aguilar V. Felton). In this case, it ruled that public school teachers can switch over and teach in private or religious schools. This case decided that if public school teachers switched over and taught as parchicol schools, no religious indoctrination would occur and there was no financial incentive. This case shows that public school teachers were switching over and teaching at private schools, furthering the funds and resources being taken away from public schools. This case contributes to the ideas of privatizing education because it involves resources in the way of teachers being taken from  public schools and being reallocated in private schools. 

    • 1991-1995- Failing Public Schools in Arizona: In the time period between 1991-1995, Fife Symington was governor of Arizona, during his time in office, the public schools in Arizona plummeted. During his time in office, he failed to fund school districts and teacher pay dropped to 30th in the country. Then, by 1995, Arizona became 46th in the nation for educational spending, putting them almost the worst in the nation. During this time, the Symington administration also promoted private ownership of education and competition between private schools and public schools to make public schools better. It is no wonder that during this administration, public schools went under because they were so chronically underfunded, leading to the push for students to go to private schools instead. 

    • 1986- “Witters V. Washington Department of Services For the Blind”: This 1986 court case highlights what happens when a person with disabilities can’t get the help they need at public schools. This case concerns a student’s interest to have taxpayer funds support their enrollment in a private, religious school. This case opened the doors to public funding supporting private education, leading to more problems in the development of education becoming a private commodity. This case spurred many programs concerning the privatization of education to emerge. This case once again shows that the money going to private education could be going to private schools to help them be better equipped in handling students’ needs with disabilities. 

    • 1984-”Aguilar V. Felton”- This supreme court case is the opposite of Agostoni V. Felton and it disagreed with the idea of public funds going to private or religious schools. This case said that giving public funds to religious schools violates the first amendment and violates the idea of separation of church and state. Furthermore, this case ruled that government funds could not be used to pay the teacher’s salaries if they worked in private or religious schools. Therefore, public school teachers could also not switch over and teach at religious schools. This case shows the challenges to the privatization of education because many find it unconstitutional for government funds to go towards private enterprises. 

    • 1973- “Committee for Public Education V. Nyquist”: This 1973 court case completely disagreed with the later “Mueller V. Allen” case. This case said that private religious schools should not receive public government funding because it goes against the first amendment and the ideas that the government and the church should be kept separate. This case said that giving funds to private or religious schools would be crossing too many boundaries that would be seen as unconstitutional. This earlier case was obviously against the privatization of education. It shows that the United States went back and forth on this issue of school choice throughout history.

    • 1971- “Lemon V. Kurtzman”: This court case introduced the “Lemon Test” where states decide the constitutionality of whether or not state’s should be providing aid to private or religious schools. The lemon test was created to ensure that if a state were to provide funds to a private or religious institution, the state would have to be funding it with secular purposes only. Therefore, this court case was seeking to avoid entangling church and state in funding private schools, but this case still doesn’t address what happens to public schools when they are not being funded because all the funding is going to private schools. 

    • 1970- Neoliberalism: New ideas were emerging during the 1970s and one of them was Neoliberalism. Neoliberalism was a political movement advocating for the creation of markets in all aspects of society, including in schools. Neoliberalists argued that if you take part in a public institution, then you aren’t really free. This means that public institutions like public schools are free because they don’t give students the freedom to choose their own type of school. This view of Neoliberalism led to the ideas of privatizing education and the school voucher system. Neoliberalists believe in the voucher system to give students the option to go to whichever school they chose. This political movement at large led to the issues facing public schools lack of funding and the unnecessary competition with private schools. 

    • 1965- “Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965”: This act was a part of Lyndon B. Johnson’s War on Poverty. This war on Poverty really focused on education and wanted all children to have equal access to education, so they pushed to fund both private and public schools. They focused on elementary and secondary level schools and allocated government funds to both private and public elementary and secondary schools. This act also made sure that both private and public schools had necessary resources to have a high level of education like libraries and transportation. This is an example of the government giving to both private and public schools but it definitely crosses some constitutional boundaries, raising issues in later court cases. 

    • 1950s- Integration to Private Schools: Important court cases like Brown V. The Board of Education during the Civil Rights Movement eventually led to the desegregation of schools throughout America. Some racist white people were not okay with their children going to school with black children, so in response, these white parents sent their children to private schools. These private schools did not necessarily have to listen to the government order to desegregate so they did what they wanted. White people sending their children to private schools to avoid integration lead to extreme racial disparities in private schools, leading to lack of diversity today. This also popularized private school options among rich upper class white people. 

    • 1925- “Pierce V. Society of Sisters”: This court case challenged the law that all students must go to public schools. This case upheld that parents should get to choose where their children go to school whether that be private or public school. This case also said that the states should be able to regulate all schools no matter if they’re public or private. My question for this case is whether school regulation by the state goes as far as funding. If the states are responsible for regulating all education and all schools, they should be responsible for making sure that all schools have the proper amount of resources to ensure a high quality of education. 

    • 1920s- Private Schools with Protestant Values: In the beginning of the 20th century, many immigrants came to America, leading to a panic response in America with so many newcomers. Nativists felt the need to ‘Americanize’ these new immigrants and the way they did it was mainly through education. They tried to indoctrinate these immigrant children with Protestant American values at school. Therefore, the government had states open schools that would teach students these protestant values. They would financially support these Protestant schools as well. This was the beginning of privatization of education and allocating funds into specific institutions. This is an early example of the government funding private, religious institutions. 


    House Bill 290-https://www.thecentersquare.com/ohio/universal-school-choice-bill-gets-first-ohio-hearing/article_28238caa-8e92-11ec-88aa-5f9529bca777.html 

    “School Choice Now Act”- https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/senate-bill/4284 

    Arizona “School Choice” BIll-https://dshutkin253.files.wordpress.com/2021/09/blakely-2017-school-choice-neoliberalism-hurt-public-goods-and-education-the-atlantic.pdf

    Arizona LawMakers Put Limits on Who can Receive Vouchers-https://www.sosaznetwork.org/history-of-school-privatization/ 

    School Voucher System Unconstitutional-https://www.sosaznetwork.org/history-of-school-privatization/ 

    “Save Our Schools Arizona” (SOSAZ)- https://www.sosaznetwork.org/history-of-school-privatization/  

    “ACLU Memo on the Constitutional Implications of Voucher Proposals”-https://www.aclu.org/other/memo-constitutional-implications-voucher-proposals  

    “Agostoni V. Felton”-https://www.oyez.org/cases/1996/96-552  

    ”Aguilar V. Felton”-https://www.oyez.org/cases/1984/84-237 

    “Witters V. Washington Department of Services For the Blind”-https://www.sosaznetwork.org/history-of-school-privatization/

    “Mueller V. Allen”-https://www.sosaznetwork.org/history-of-school-privatization/ 

     “Committee for Public Education V. Nyquist”-https://www.sosaznetwork.org/history-of-school-privatization/ 

    “Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965”-https://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/programs/education/elementary-and-secondary-education-act-of-1965/#:~:text=ESEA%20is%20an%20extensive%20statute,the%20promotion%20of%20parental%20involvement.  

    Integration to Private Schools-https://www.sosaznetwork.org/history-of-school-privatization/ 

    “Pierce V. Society of Sisters”-https://www.sosaznetwork.org/history-of-school-privatization/ 

    Private Schools with Protestant Values-https://www.sosaznetwork.org/history-of-school-privatization/ 

    Failing Public Schools in Arizona-https://www.sosaznetwork.org/history-of-school-privatization/ 

    Neoliberalism-https://dshutkin253.files.wordpress.com/2021/09/blakely-2017-school-choice-neoliberalism-hurt-public-goods-and-education-the-atlantic.pdf “No Child Left Behind Act”-https://www.k12.wa.us/policy-funding/grants-grant-management/every-student-succeeds-act-essa-implementation/elementary-and-secondary-education-act-esea/no-child-left-behind-act-2001#:~:text=The%20No%20Child%20Left%20Behind,and%20once%20in%20high%20school.

    “No Child Left Behind Act”-https://www.k12.wa.us/policy-funding/grants-grant-management/every-student-succeeds-act-essa-implementation/elementary-and-secondary-education-act-esea/no-child-left-behind-act-2001#:~:text=The%20No%20Child%20Left%20Behind,and%20once%20in%20high%20school

    Devos Speech on Educational Reform: https://dshutkin253.files.wordpress.com/2021/09/blakely-2017-school-choice-neoliberalism-hurt-public-goods-and-education-the-atlantic.pdf 

  • ED 100- Field Post #3

    One big thing I noticed during my time observing at Laurel was that every history class I went in did not use a textbook when teaching. This really shocked me because in my high school experience, every class I had came with a corresponding textbook and that was how we learned. Classes at Laurel, on the other hand, used countless other methods besides textbooks to teach their students history. I describe in my comic strip all the different resources teachers used to teach history. In Honors African American History, the teacher used art, films, poetry, and literature to teach about different time periods in African American history. Furthermore, in AP US History, the teacher had the students look at political cartoons from the late 19th century to learn about corruption during the Gilded Age. Lastly, in Honors World History, the class was learning about the Cold War, so they discussed primary sources such as Kennedy’s speech after the Cuban Missile Crisis. 
    I thought Laurel’s use of other resources besides textbooks is very creative and a great way to learn about history. It really reminded me of what we talked about in ED 100 about teaching outside the textbook. Specifically, the section in the New Teacher Book called “I Hate the Textbook I’ve Been Given to Use” where it talks about how students need to use resources other than the textbook when learning because it gives them more than one perspective and helps them to think critically. I also believe that teaching outside the textbook keeps students better engaged and keeps them interested because it’s more hands on. 

  • ED 100- Field Post 2

    When I was observing at Laurel, I would usually be there during lunch, and this is a comic strip of my time at lunch during my first day at Laurel. In the first panel, I had just finished observing a class and the teacher offered to take me to lunch and then to a student seminar to learn more about the Ukraine Crisis. In the second panel, the teacher is taking me to eat lunch in the Cafeteria at Laurel. Laurel is a rich, private school and the students that go there are relatively all upper middle class, so everything there is very expensive and new and this didn’t stop at their lunch. They had many different options for food including desserts and vegan food. Moving on, In the my third panel, I arrive at the seminar and there are many interested students there and this reminded me of the reading in the New Teacher Book “Little Kids, Big Ideas” because it talked about how we need to entertain when students are interested in real world issues and not to tell them that they’re too young to understand. We as educators need to help students understand real world issues (pg. 298). At the seminar, the teachers went over background information causing the issue, what’s happening now, and what could happen in the future. Then, they posed some questions to the students about what we can do do help those in Ukraine and the students had a lot to say on the matter. This reminded me of the ideas in the New Teacher Book about educating students to be activists in their own community. For example, in the section “Creating Classrooms for Equity and social justice,” they suggest setting up your classroom and teaching to promote students to become activists and to be change makers. It suggests teaching in ways that bring up current issues in the classrooms and urging students to think of ways we can fix them and make the world a better place (pg. 54).

  • ED 100 last learning experience (5/6/2022)

    On Tuesday, my learning circle had the learning experience on the readings “From Outrage to Organizing,” “Why Community Schools? Public Schools as Greenhouses of Democracy,“”How Can I Decide if a School Reform Project is Worth Supporting,” “Aren’t you on the Parent Listserv?”, “Blood on the Tracks,” and “Little Kids, Big Ideas.” The first section of the assigned reading was called “From Outrage to Organizing” by Ikechukwu Onyema and its main focus was on building up communities through educating people about activism. This reading is from the perspective of an educator who is seeking change in their community regarding police brutality. The reading begins by explaining that Freedom Schools were important during the Civil Rights Movement and they functioned as places to become educated on politics and many other things. The reading then goes on to explain how police brutality disproportionately affects black people and people of color. It describes a local instance of police brutality that shocked and angered the community, and in response to this incident, Freedom Schools were set up to discuss ideas and topics of race and ways to fix problems in the community like police brutality. The next reading was called “Why Community Schools?”, and the author of this essay believes that there are many things that make up a community school and that some schools say that they are community schools but they really are not. According to “Why Community Schools?”, schools that can call themselves community schools are ones that have strong and culturally relevant curriculum, high quality teaching, inclusive leadership, community support services, positive discipline practices, and family and community engagement (pg. 279-280). The third section of the assigned reading was the Q/A part, which talks about how school reform is traditionally top down but we as educators need to ensure that real change is taking place in schools and that whatever change takes place, it must serve the whole community. This writer believes that the best way a school can be reformed is by inserting more democracy in it. The fourth section was called “Aren’t you on the Parent Listserv?” by Grace Cornell Gonzales. This reading is from the point of view of a teacher who is shocked that in her very diverse school, only the white parents are on the PTA board and are really involved. This teacher was concerned that not all the students and families in her classroom were being represented by this all white PTA board. This teacher suggests ways to get the parents of all students involved in the classroom by putting emphasis on parent-teacher communication and that priority should go to the bilingual student families. The fifth section was called “Blood on the Tracks” by Amy Lindahl and it is from the perspective of a teacher who is shocked to find that her classrooms were still segregated. The reading talks about how there are way less people graduating with diplomas in stem who are black than people who are white. This reflects in the classrooms with white students being enrolled more often in higher level demanding courses in school and black students being enrolled in these higher level classes less often. This shows that there are disparities in class enrollment because students with higher socioeconomic backgrounds feel more comfortable in those hard classes. The last reading was called “Little Kids, Big Ideas” and it was from the perspective of a Rethinking Schools editor who overheard a second grader saying that he wanted to “Nuke the world.” She began questioning how little kids know so much about what’s going on in the world. It’s because they have access to the internet and hear their parents talk. She realized that even little students need to learn about hard topics in schools so that they can have a better understanding.

      In my learning experience on Tuesday, my group chose to emphasize the ideas of educating activism, how to teach little kids hard topics, making sure that the parents of all students are involved in the classroom, racial disparities in classroom enrollment, and community schools. Our learning experience was a google slides and we first went over the objectives, discussed the readings, and then had discussion questions at tables after each section. I contributed to the design of the learning experience by creating the objectives and creating the slides for educational activism and the questions that followed. My responsibilities during the learning experience were the educating activism slides, the questions after and the learning objectives. We consulted the New Teacher Book in the organizing of our learning experience.

    New Teacher Book: 

    Christensen.L, Karp.S, Peterson. B, Yonamine.M. 2019. The New Teacher Book. Rethinking Schools. Pg. 94-118. 

    Google slides: 


  • ED 253 Current Connection 3 (5/3/22)

    On Thursday my learning circle had the Current Connection on the reading “Urban School Reform, Family Support, and Student Achievement” by Kiersten Greene and Jean Anyon. This reading focused on how poverty among students is a big factor contributing to their lack of achievement compared to students coming from wealthier backgrounds. The article begins by talking about the sad truth that statistically students from low income families or schools score lower on standardized tests than students in schools or areas that are well funded. The article states that “85% of low income urban students at the eighth grade level scored at or below the basic level in reading” (Greene, Anyon). This stat shows that schools are not serving low income students well enough despite the number of legislatures like the No Child Left behind act (2001) being passed attempting to fix the problem. The article seeks to prove that socio economic status greatly affects the achievement of students, and that the lack of opportunities and access to technology widens the achievement gap between low income students and students from wealthier backgrounds. The article then goes on to explain how poverty on students can widen the achievement gap. Poverty can have detrimental effects on students. The exhaustion of working several jobs, not always having parents around, and dealing with welfare is very hard on children and can cause their education to suffer because their attention is not on school but on the struggles of their home and family life. The article segways into talking about how throughout the 20th century, highways and other advancements were developed in the suburbs but not in the cities. As everything moved to the suburbs, including banks, doctors offices, and super markets, it left the people in the cities with little resources to survive, leading to their present poverty. Additionally, the city property tax concerning funding in education was getting smaller and smaller in cities, leading to underfunded urban schools (Greene, Anyon). So many students especially in urban areas rely on public schools and these low property taxes take away resources from these public schools, and these underfunded public schools greatly contribute to the widening achievement gap between students in these underfunded schools and students in well funded schools. Not only does socioeconomic status affect students’ achievement in school, but it affects their overall development as well. The article explains that poverty can affect a student’s cognitive and health and behavior (Greene, Anyon). Increasing the economic resources to poor student’s families would greatly increase the Student’s achievement level and quality of education. 

    This article is definitely advocating for the allocation of funds and resources to low income students, families, and schools to help close the education between all demographics of students for goods. The article wants all students to have the same access to education and resources needed for a good quality of life. To prove their point, the article uses multiple forms of evidence but they specifically use statistics, pieces of legislation like the No Child Left Behind act, and historical events. 

    For my Current Connection on Thursday I connected the assigned reading to an article published during the peak of covid called “As Classes Go Online, Many Students Just aren’t Showing Up.” This article highlights the fact that students in poverty often do not have access to resources like technology or transportation. My connection article explains that once classes went online for covid, schools, especially those with large amounts of low income students, experienced more absences than usual because poor students could not afford computers or access to the internet. The fact that low income students could not participate in online learning widens the achievement gap between rich and poor students as stated in the assigned reading because students fall behind when they are absent from school, giving those students with access to technology like computers an advantage. Regardless of Covid, chronic absences are a big issue in schools with impoverished students because oftentimes these students do not have access to transportation like cars or they lack parental supervision because their parents are working multiple jobs. This article relates to the assigned reading in many ways, but it especially shows the correlation between poverty among students and underachievement in schools as well as the lack of resources and a sufficient quality of education that so many students from poorer backgrounds have to live with.

    Google Slides: 


    Assigned reading: 

    “Urban School Reform, Family Support, and Student Achievement”

    Current Connection Article: 

    oldstein, D., Popescu, A., & Hannah-Jones, N. (2020, Apr 07). As classes go online, many students just aren’t showing up: [foreign desk]. New York Times Retrieved from http://jcu.ohionet.org/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/newspapers/as-classes-go-online-many-students-just-arent/docview/2386662674/se-2?accountid=35810

  • google slides


  • ED 100- Current Connection (4/26/22)

    The current connection for this week was on three readings out of The New Teacher Book: “My Dirty Little Secret: I Don’t Grade Student Papers,” “Taking Teacher Quality Seriously A Collaborative Approach to Teacher Evaluation,” and “Beyond Test Scores: Introducing the MCIEA School Quality Measures.” The first essay we looked at, “My Dirty Little Secret: I Don’t Grade Student Papers” by Linda Christensen, is from the perspective of a high school teacher who does not grade her students papers on the normal grading scale. This teacher truly wants her students to turn in meaningful work, and she believes that having students turn in something just for a grade does not teach them how to write. She wants them to learn how to write without the fear of failure or ridicule. This teacher’s system is based on revision and feedback. She has her students write multiple drafts, which she provides helpful feedback on and they receive “credit” by improving upon their drafts. I think this is a great grading system to teach students how to write for the right reasons, and it facilitates student achievement without ever putting them down. The second essay we looked at was called “Taking Teacher Quality Seriously” by Stan Karp.This reading is from the perspective of someone who is very much in support of teacher unions because they ensure high teacher quality and protect teacher’s rights. This author also advocates developing and training teachers to meet certain standards to ensure quality. The essay states, “good teaching is nurtured in a school and in a school system culture that values constant feedback,analysis, and refinement of the quality of teaching,” (pg. 239-240). I agree with this quote because it is important to always evaluate teachers to ensure a good school environment. The third essay is titled “Beyond Test Scores” by James Noonan. This author believes that there are more ways to evaluate schools and teachers besides using standardized tests. The author mentions the MCIEA , which seeks to find more authentic ways to assess student learning. The essay also mentions the School Quality Measure, which aims to describe the full measure of what makes a good school. He explains the 5 qualities that contribute to a high quality school: teacher and teaching environment, school culture, resources, indicators of academic learning, and well being of students (pg. 243). I think the perspective of this essay is incredibly important. Standardized testing does not assess the full potential of students nor does it assess teacher quality, learning environment, and student well being. The MCIEA and the School Quality Measure are great examples of ways we can measure school quality and student learning without the stress of standardized tests. 

    My learning circle had the current connection last Thursday and I decided to focus my connection on the reading “Beyond Test Scores” and I connected it with an article called “Standardized Tests in their Current Format are Incredibly Antiquated.” This article starts with a professor of Psychology at Cornell University named Robert Sternberg, and he is frustrated with the current form of standardized testing because it doesn’t teach students how to solve real world problems that they will see in society and in life. He explains that standardized tests are incredibly weak at providing useful information on whether students are thinking critically and creatively. The article explains that the Center for American Progress (CAP) is seeking ways to better support teaching and learning that does not involve traditional standardized testing.The article also explains that a good way to assess teaching and learning besides testing is to develop “Holistic Assessment Systems” in schools. “Holistic Assessments” are assessments that measure school environment, school culture, teacher quality, school resources, and student well being. The article explains that a school cannot teach students effectively if the quality standards of “holistic assessments” are not met, making them just as important as test scores. The article’s main idea is that standardized testing does not assess the full student and it does not adequately assess teacher or school quality or how well the students are actually learning. Furthermore, the article insists on finding ways to assess students that promote creativity and knowledge of social awareness. I connected this article with the reading “Beyond Test Scores” because my current connection article upholds all the points brought up in the reading. Both the article and the reading agree that standardized testing is not beneficial for students or schools, and the article I chose bolsters and gives credibility to the reading for this week. 

    Connection Article:

    Salman, J. (2022, April 11). Standardized tests in their current format are ‘incredibly antiquated’. TucsonSentinel.com (AZ). Available from NewsBank: Access World News: https://infoweb.newsbank.com/apps/news/document-view?p=AWNB&docref=news/1895A2EC1C6FB190.

    New Teacher Book: 

    Christensen.L, Karp.S, Peterson. B, Yonamine.M. 2019. The New Teacher Book. Rethinking Schools. Pg. 189-206. 

    Google Slides: 


  • ED 100- Field Post 1 (4/8/22)

    My comic strip is based on my first day observing at Laurel Upper School. Laurel is an all girls school from preschool to 12th grade, but I primarily worked with the high schoolers in history and social studies classes. On my first day at Laurel I went to three classes, but in my comic strip I include the two that stood out the most to me and these were World History and Honors African American History. 

    In my comic strip, I share that I first went to World History where the teacher was kind, upbeat, and welcoming. In this class, I observed that the students seemed engaged, interested, and happy to be there, which reminded me of what we learned in the New Teacher Book that students learn better in welcoming,inclusive environments and this classroom was proof of that. In my comic strip, I show the teacher asking the students if there are any questions or comments on what they were learning because in this class I was shocked by how many 9th graders were eager to participate in the learning so many had educated comments and questions about the content. 

    The second class I went to was Honors African History and I state in my comic strip that this class doesn’t have a textbook and they learn using different primary sources, which reminded me of what we learned in class about the importance of teaching outside the textbook. In this class, I incorporated into my comic strip that the students had gone to the art museum and were presenting what they thought was interesting, relating to African American History. I show in my comic strip that this class was mainly student run and the teacher helps facilitate and engage in conversation with the students, which I thought was very interesting. 


  • ED 253- Learning experience 3(4/8/22)

    Google slides: 


    LEX article: 

    Spring, Joel 2013. Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality. Chapter 2: Native Americans: Deculturalization. Schooling, and Globalization. New York: McGraw Hill.pp. 21-40. 

    The assigned reading for this week and the one we did our learning experience on was called “Native Americans: Deculturalization, Schooling, Globalization, and Inequality” by Joel Spring. Before reading this article, I had learned very little in my own schooling about the deculturalization of Native Americans in the United States through education. If I learned anything about these terrible events, it was through a white washed lens or briefly brushed over. This article, on the other hand, gives a very in depth description of the horrors Native Americans faced with the American education system which tried to erase their culture and traditions. This article brings up many themes. Starting with the idea of globalization and its effects. Imperialism and the conquering of land is a mode of globalization and in consequence, the indigenous people throughout history have been taken under control and often forced to give up their culture at the hands of their white oppressors. The erasing of Native American culture is known in the article as deculturalization. The article explains that one method of deculturalization has been done through education. The article brings up the 1830 Indian-Removal Act which forced Native American children to attend American school that destroyed their culture and language. These schools were intended to “civilize” and force these children to conform to American values and ways of life. The article explains that the man behind these “Native American reform schools” was Thomas Mckenney who believed that the key to civilization for any non white person was schooling, and he helped pass the civilization act of 1819, which raised funds for these schools among Indian tribes. In these “Indian boarding schools,” not only were their cultures erased, but children were forced from their parents and families and oftentimes terribly abused in these schools. The nuns and priests who ran these schools also forced Native Americans to convert to catholicism, further eradicating their culture. While the white men attempted to completely erase the Native American culture, the article states that many Native Americans advocated for the preservation of indigenous culture such as Sequoyah who wanted to preserve Cherokee culture by developing a written Cherokee language and alphabet. Towards the end of the article, the author talks about the beginning of the era of reform concerning the deculturalization of Native Americans. He explains the significance of the 1928 Meriam Report, which stated that government policies oppressed Native Americans, and this included schooling that forced children from their families and erased their cultural identities. 

    Joel Spring uses a lot of evidence to support his argument about the truth of Native American deculturalization through schooling. For instance he uses a lot of historical legislation as evidence. He uses the 1830 Indian-Removal act to show how Native American children were forced to attend schools to “civilize them” and this idea of civilizing through schooling was established through the Civilization Act of 1819. Then, Spring uses the 1928 Meriam report to show the beginning of the realization that the government was oppressing natives through this forced schooling. 

    The author of this article Joel Spring specializes in Native American culture and experiences throughout American history. Therefore, it is clear that Spring is writing from the perspective of a person knowledgeable about the struggles Native Americans have faced at the hands of the U.S. government  especially pertaining to the taking of their land and the erasing of their culture. He very clearly writes from the perspective of someone who empathizes with the Native American experience and wants it to be known and acknowledged. I truly agree with the perspective of the author regarding this article. The American government and education system has acted very poorly regarding Native Americans. The use of schools to force the erasure of Native American culture and identity is despicable and dishonorable on every level, and has left its mark on the school system in America to this day with the continued indoctrination of American culture on immigrant students and other students of color. Schools should be meant to uplift the culture and identities of all students, erasing the culture of students has no place in any curriculum. 

    On Tuesday, my LC’s main objective was for our peers to understand how globalization can cause deculturalization and how Native Americans in the United States have been forced throughout history to undergo deculturalization through schooling that taught them to conform to American culture and ideologies. To follow these objectives, we thought it best to include what globalization and deculturalization is, who Thomas Mckenney was, what “Indian boarding schools” were, who Sequoyah was, and what the Meriam report was. For the planning of the lesson, I studied what globalization and deculturalization is and I helped develop our exit slip activity. Finally, in teaching the lesson, I was responsible for the slides on globalization and deculturalization and I was responsible for the activity at the end.  

  • ED 100- Learning Experience (3/31/2022)

    Google Slides: 


    Christensen.L, Karp.S, Peterson. B, Yonamine.M. 2019. The New Teacher Book. Rethinking Schools. Pg. 189-206. 

    The assigned reading for this week was composed of three very important essays: “Inclusivity is Not a Guessing Game,” “I Believe You,” and “On Behalf of Their Name.” The first essay “Inclusivity is Not a Guessing Game” is from the point of view of an elementary school teacher, and it begins with a Muslim girl not being able to eat the class treats because they were not Halal. To include her in the class events, the teacher brought in class treats that were Halal so that her and other Muslim students in the class could eat them and feel included. This began a conversation on how to make the classroom a more inclusive environment, and bringing in snacks that students with dietary restrictions can eat is just one way to be inclusive. The teacher then brings up how we can be more inclusive when discussing religion and holidays by teaching about non-Christian religions like Ramadan. The essay explains that it’s not enough to do little things to include students of different backgrounds, but it’s also important to incorporate the identities of all students into the curriculum so that the teaching is relevant to them. The second essay “I Believe You” is from the perspective of a first grade teacher who wanted her students to feel heard by her. The essay starts with a first grade student complaining of a headache and instead of dismissing her headache as nothing, the teacher said “I believe you.” By saying I believe you, the teacher validates her student’s feelings, which is especially important at such a young age. This teacher told her colleagues to start using “I believe you” when addressing her student’s problems to validate their student’s experiences and feelings. This essay highlights the importance of showing students that you care about them as their teacher and that you are there to help them. The last essay “On Behalf of Their Name” is from the perspective of a transgender teacher who is the staff advisor of queer straight alliance. In this essay, the students in queer straight alliance are fed up with the schools unacknowledgement of nonbianary students and staff and they are having a meeting with the staff to help inform them. These students really just asked for their teachers and peers to recognize and make an effort to get their pronouns right. In the end, this essay highlights how important it is for teachers to learn and understand all their students’ pronouns so that they can make all their students feel accepted. Additionally, the essay emphasizes the importance of gender neutrality in the classroom and to make sure that no students are being excluded based on gender. 

    My LC included aspects of all three essays into our learning experience. We included the ideas of doing little things to include all students in class activities such as bringing in alternative snacks and teaching about non-Christian holidays from “Inclusivity is Not a Guessing Game.” We emphasized the idea of making sure students know that you care about them as a teacher through the essay “I Believe You.” We also brought up the story about the little girl who wanted to play Peter Pan in the play but her teachers told her she couldn’t to illustrate the importance of encouraging the dreams and aspirations of your students. Lastly, we emphasized the importance of understanding your student’s pronouns and striving for gender neutrality in the classroom through “On Behalf of Their Names.” 

    Our learning experience on Tuesday was a google slides presentation. It included our learning objections, overviews of the essays, discussion questions, and activities. Other than the discussion questions, which were a large part of our lesson, our main activity was a categories game where the students had to go to the side of the room with the category they preferred. This activity related to the essay “On Behalf of their Name” to show that there are many ways gender neutrality and respect for different pronouns can be implemented into the classroom. I contributed to the design of the learning experience by coming up with the learning objectives, creating the slides on “Inclusivity is Not a Guessing Game” and the discussion questions after that, and I helped make the slides for our categories activity regarding gender neutrality. My responsibilities during the learning experience were the learning objectives, “Inclusivity is Not a Guessing Game slides” including the discussion questions, and I helped explain and carry out the activity. The reference we consulted for the learning experience was mainly the essays in The New Teacher Book.